upright, tall, usually prickly near ground, leafy, hollow. This plant usually depends on disturbance to remain present in an area. Winter annual plants are the opposite to this, because they tend to go through their life cycle in the colder months of the year. Life cycle: Annual or biennial Growth Habit: Erect Propagation: Seed Leaf Margin: Deeply lobed Leaf Hairs: Prickled spines present on lower leaf surface Leaf Structure: Oblong Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Root Type: Thick taproot Flower Color: Yellow. Prefers full sun and tolerates only light shade; found in soils ranging from rich soils on mesic sites to dry, nutrient-poor soil. Which happens depends both on timing of seed germination, and conditions. Reproduction is by seed. Stem sometimes bristly. Prickly lettuce is native to Europe and introduced worldwide, including throughout North America. Lower leaves are alternate, blue-green, 4 to 12 inches long with two to five lobes with prickly teeth on each side, gradually becoming smaller toward the top with a clasping base. Prickly Lettuce - Lactuca serriola. Prickly lettuce has jagged leaves that are easy to spot. Sowthistle, Annual Sonchus oleraceus; Herbicidal Control Options It does have herbicide resistance issues plus it is a late germinating weed that comes after commonly used herbicides have broken down. Prickly lettuce is an annual or biennial, in the sense that it sometimes blooms during the same year it germinates, but sometimes grows only as a basal rosette of leaves during the first year. Flowers: Yellow ray flowers occur in large panicles mid-summer to late fall. prickly lettuce: USDA PLANTS Symbol: LASE U.S. Nativity: Exotic Habit: Forbs/Herbs Lactuca serriola L. Jump to: Images | Distribution Maps | Sources. Lower leaf of perennial sowthistle. Has a taproot. The leaves are dark green, and the veins are pale white. This species has sometimes used for producing Lettuce Opium or Lactucarium, a sedative milder than opiates, although the closely-related Lactuca virosa is more often used for this purpose. Possibly the wild ancestor of cultivated lettuce, Prickly Lettuce belongs to a group of mainly yellow-flowered daisies in the Tribe Lactuceae. Leaf midvein is not prickly underneath. wild lettuce. Which happens depends both on timing of seed germination, and conditions. Prickly Lettuce, Lactuca Serriola L., a native to the Mediterranean region is. Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) can be a summer annual or biennial. Leaf margins are prickly, and prickles also run along the central vein. ID Characteristics. 374. All leaves on this broadleaf weed have prickles that occur along the leaf margins and also along the mid-vein on the lower leaf surfaces. When the leaves have been damaged, they ooze latex. The central stem is light green or dull white, glabrous, and round in circumference. edges and thick, whitish green midrib, closely set with spines on the under side, sessile, clasping, auricled at base. Family Name: Asteraceae (Compositae) - Aster or Sunflower Family. Photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk taken at numerous locations in the seven county Metro area and the Dakotas. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. China lettuce. Leaves. The young leaves are edible raw or cooked and the young shoots may be cooked and eaten. document.write(''); » Upload a photo» Post a comment» Add an event report, © 1972 - 2020 National Gardening Association, Times are presented in US Central Standard Time, Today's site banner is by Paul2032 and is called "Pink Poinsettia". overview; data; media; articles; maps; names; filter by attribute show all geographic distribution includes introduced range includes life cycle habit plant growth form. Lactuca serriola, also called prickly lettuce, milk thistle (not to be confused with Silybum marianum, also called milk thistle), compass plant, and scarole, is an annual or biennial plant in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family.It has a slightly fetid odor and is commonly considered a weed of orchards, roadsides and field crops. Seedling leaves initially develop from a basal rosette from a deep taproot. The plant is sometimes called wild lettuce, China lettuce or compass plant because the leaves on the main stem are held vertically in a north-south plane, perpendicular to direct sunlight. Prickly lettuce, like sow thistle, will exude a milky juice when plant parts are broken. Posted by Category: Noticias Category: Noticias Prickly Lettuce plant; more plants; plants with “shepherd's hooks” more flowers ; Photos by K. Chayka taken in various Ramsey County locations. Each flower head produces 12-17 seeds and an average plant may have 2,350 to 27,900 seeds. Highly variable in height; can grow tup 7' but usually much shorter. Stems erect, 30-150 cm high, whitish-green, usually smooth with a few prickles on the lower part, rather finely branched at the top. There are also numerous Lactuca species native to North America, as well as other introduced species; L. serriola is the most abundant introduced lettuce in most of North America. Prickly Lettuce Lactuca serriola Aster family (Asteraceae) Description: This annual or biennial plant is 2-7' tall and unbranched, except where the upper flowering stems occur. Privacy Policy and These plants start to germinate spring and most of them will not finish their life cycle until early or late summer. Leaves are deeply lobed, and clasp the base of the stem. Prickly lettuce should be controlled before it flowers. Prickly Lettuce Lactuca serriola L. collect. The leaf margin has fine prickles, and the midrib (lower leaf surface) is lined with conspicuous prickles. Foliage: Cauline foliage is pinnately lobed, thick and leathery, and with prickles on the margins and midrib (underside). Prickly lettuce didn’t pose a problem to U.S. farmers until no-till and reduced tillage farming practices became prevalent, allowing the weed to thrive in cropland. Life cycle: Annual or biennial Growth Habit: Erect Propagation: Seed Leaf Margin: Deeply lobed Leaf Hairs: Prickled spines present on lower leaf surface Leaf Structure: Oblong Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Root Type: Thick taproot Flower Color: Yellow Multimedia Another common name is "compass plant", because the leaves on the main stem are held vertically in a north-south plane, perpendicular to direct sunlight. Leaves of Prickly Lettuce are arranged alternately and can grow from 2 to 14 inches long. Regular monitoring and removal of plants from the site will prevent seeds from developing and accumulating in the soil. Leaves. Multimedia. The woody stems of this plant are hollow, and form in the middle of a basal rosette of leaves. Stems. Prickly lettuce is a widely-distributed plant, native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, and introduced to North America where it is widely considered weedy and invasive. — Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca scariola, var. The flowers of the plant are yellow but often turn purple as time goes by. Lettuce leaves contain small amounts of opiate-like substance, lactucarium("lettuce opium"), which is a mild sedative. The leaves emit a milky sap when cut, and the root structure is a taproot. prickly lettuce, compass weed, compass plant. A summer or winter annual, or a biennial that produces erect stems (30 cm to 1.5 m in height) from a basal rosette of leaves. Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it? Distinguishing Characteristics. In most of eastern North America, found only on disturbed ground in anthropogenic habitats, including roadsides and railroads, gardens, abandoned fields, and waste ground. The leaves form in a basal rosette. introduced annual, winter annual or biennial, reproducing by seed. Will flower from June to late autumn. Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Asterales: Asteraceae: Synonym(s): China lettuce, wild lettuce: Native Range: Europe ; Appearance Lactuca serriola is an annual or biennial that can reach heights of 6 ft. (1.8 m). Prickly lettuce has a deep tap root which will exude a milky sap. These leaves can be lobed or unlobed and are egg-shaped. Thank you. Characteristics Prickly lettuce may be mistaken for dandelion, at the rosette stage, or for sow-thistles at any stage. ↑ Life Cycle. Description. Common name(s): Prickly lettuce Scientific name: Lactuca serriola Family: Aster or Sunflower family (Asteraceae) Reasons for concern: This plant is now naturalized over most of North America.It can easily take over roadsides, abandoned fields, and other disturbed areas, significantly reducing native plant diversity and the pollinators which are dependent on them. Prickly Lettuce Characteristics. The woody stems of this plant are hollow, and form in the middle of a basal rosette of leaves. Tall, greyish, stiff and erect plant to 1.8 metres. It germinates with the onset of winter rains and inhabits agricultural land and many other areas. Fig. Synonyms (former Scientific Names): Lactuca scariola . Habit. Identification Notes. Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) can be a summer annual or biennial. no ‘eye’ to the daisy). It is sometimes referred to as "wild lettuce", because it is closely related to, and inter-fertile with, cultivated lettuce. Another common name for prickly lettuce is wild opium, because its latex contains compounds that are slightly analgesic and sedating. Basal rosettes grow flat to the ground in winter; in spring, they take on a more … Prickly lettuce … (Figure 1) The French common name for prickly lettuce is "laitue scariole", which derives from its scientific name, Lactuca serriola or La… Image Gallery; Similar Species. Prickly lettuce (Lactuca Serriola L), also called wild lettuce, Chinese lettuce or compass plant, is native to the Mediterranean region.Prickly lettuce spread to North America in the late 1800s. Winter or summer annual reproducing only by seed. Prickly lettuce flowers from July to September and is automatically self-pollinated. Prickly lettuce is an annual or biennial, in the sense that it sometimes blooms during the same year it germinates, but sometimes grows only as a basal rosette of leaves during the first year. The plants in this tribe are characterised by having a basal rosette of leaves (flat-weeds), milky sap in their stems and their flower-heads consisting entirely of ray florets (i.e. Seed leaves (cotyledons) and young leaves are oval with spiny leaf margins and spines along the mid-vein of the lower leaf surface. Excessive sprinkler irrigation (more than 2 inches) will leach pronamide too deeply in the soil to be effective for weed control. Leaves have a thickened midvein and exude a milky sap when damaged. Fig. Basal rosettes grow flat to the ground in winter; in spring, they take on a more rounded, bushy growth habit, and they begin to bolt upward late spring to early summer. There may be a few prickles toward its base. Our ancestors used lettuce to treat anxiety, insomnia, and neurosis. However, it will not control weeds in the composite family (e.g., annual sowthistle, common groundsel, and prickly lettuce), of which lettuce is a member. See Key to Yellow Daisy Flat-weeds. top prickly lettuce. Plants establish a taproot upon sprouting. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Produces wind-dispersed seeds; plants die after setting seed. Terms of Service apply. In this video, I show you how to properly cook prickly wild lettuce and the best time to harvest for cooking. Species; Additional images; Click here to support NatureSpot by making a donation - small or large - your gift is very much appreciated. Other common names for prickly lettuce include China lettuce, compass plant, and wild lettuce. USDA Plants data. Common name: prickly lettuce : Life cycle: annual, spreads by seed: Habit: grows tall and upright, 3 to 6 feet tall: Rosette: Rosettes can grow up to 12 inches in diameter. Leaves and stem both emit a milky white sap when cut. 375. integrate). This plant has evolved resistance to several herbicides. Comments. Life Cycle. Habitat. Life Cycle. Compass Plant. Prickly lettuce is a common winter annual or biennial broadleaf plant in California and is found throughout up to 6600 feet (2000 m). The leaf shape is distinctive, with the indentation between lobes forming a "C" shape. Leaves are deeply lobed, and clasp the base of the stem. Synonyms. Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) is an annual or rarely a biennial in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). wild lettuce. • Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce) | Illinois Wildflowers (About This Site), • Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce) | USDA PLANTS Database (About This Site), • Lactuca serriola | Go Botany (About This Site), Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce) | Illinois Wildflowers, Lactuca serriola (Prickly Lettuce) | USDA PLANTS Database. In more arid areas farther west, it is still most common in anthropogenic habitats, but more likely to be found in wild areas, such as riparian areas in arid climates. Lactuca serriola is closely related to cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and can hybridize with it. examples of a winter annual plant would be bluegrass, prickly lettuce, etc. Prickly lettuce is a winter annual weed often found in no-till soybeans and winter wheat, or along field edges. Scientific Name: Lactuca serriola L., syn, Lactuca scariola. In terms of its ecological niche, it is probably most similar to L. canadensis, which grows taller and is slightly more shade-tolerant. Unlike thistles, prickles are not usually stiff enough to puncture skin. Usually blooms mid-summer, sometimes later. Plants establish a taproot upon sprouting. Life cycle: Biennial: Sun Requirements: Full Sun: Water Preferences: Mesic: Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 4a -34.4 °C (-30 °F) to -31.7 °C (-25 °F) Plant Height: 12 inches to 48 inches: Leaves: Unusual foliage color Other: Prickly: Flowers: Showy: Flower Color: Yellow: Bloom Size: Under 1" Flower Time: Spring Summer Fall: Underground structures: Taproot: Uses: Salad greens Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. KY: Haragan, P.D.. 1991. The leaf shape is distinctive, with the indentation between lobes forming a "C" shape. Of seed germination, and inter-fertile with, cultivated lettuce, etc the structure. 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Wheat, or for sow-thistles at any stage start to germinate spring and of! Contain small amounts of opiate-like substance, lactucarium ( `` lettuce opium '' ), and neurosis prickly... Tribe Lactuceae anxiety, insomnia, and form in the seven county Metro area and root... Lettuce … leaves of prickly lettuce belongs to a group of mainly yellow-flowered daisies in the of! Lower leaf surface hollow, and clasp the base of the lower leaf surfaces ray flowers occur large! Daisies in the Tribe Lactuceae it germinates with the indentation between lobes forming ``.