In 1553, Ignatius appointed fifteen Jesuits and assigned them to the fabled Kingdom of Prester John, which he also constituted into a province of the Society of Jesus.32 The mission never materialized immediately; not until 1554 when João Nunes Barreto (already mentioned earlier) was appointed patriarch for Ethiopia, alongside André de Oviedo (1518‒1577) and Melchior Miguel Carneiro Leitão (1519‒1583) as his coadjutor bishops. 3 A 2014 painting of the seventeenth-century Church of Jesus in Luanda, Angola (by Martin Waweru Kamau, SJ), Like Angola in southwestern Africa, the hinterland that loosely matches present-day Mozambique became the focal point of Portuguese activity in southeastern Africa in the seventeenth century. Some major stations included a church, a school, a farm, and, at times, a hospital or an orphanage. The Jesuit presence in Africa dates back to 1542 when, two years after the founding of the Society of Jesus by St. Ignatius of Loyola, the first mission was established in Congo. General appoints new Provincial for the Society of Jesus in Southern Africa A ceremony held for change in leadership at the Jesuits Eastern Africa Province and the pronouncing of final vows The proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) African Jesuits AIDS Network in times of covid-19 Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2013.Find this resource: Moorehead, Alan. Contact: +27 (64) 079-9221. (53) Within Ethiopia itself, they met with a significantly hostile mission environment. 1962.Find this resource: Rea, W. F. “Agony on the Zambezi: The First Christian Mission to Southern Africa and Its Failure, 1580–1759.” Zambezia 1/2 (1970): 46–53.Find this resource: Rea, William Francis. French Jesuits explored the woodlands of Maine and celebrated, in 1611, the first known Mass on American soil, at the mouth of the Kennebec River. They are organized in nine provinces and regions and they work in thirty-six African countries, in parishes, schools and colleges, as well as in advocacy, social development, and spirituality centers (Fig. In this way, the Jesuit missions in Madagascar mirrored what was happening elsewhere on the African continent by depending on the colonial climate of the time for their continued survival. Besides translating material, the Jesuits also embarked on writing new accounts. Jean Luc Enyegue, SJ, a doctoral student at Boston University, whose research subject is the nineteenth-century Jesuit mission in Fernando Po. Whereas the exact number of Catholic churches, outstations, and residences established by the Jesuits during this period has not been established with certitude, there have been mentions of as many as thirty-one residential sites and a hundred churches and chapels, most of them located in the regions of Tigray, Dambea, and Gojjam. (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1916), 1:433; idem, Records of South-Eastern Africa: Collected in Various Libraries and Archive Departments in Europe, 9 vols. 454), whose supposed heresy the Jesuits considered to have been the beginning of an Ethiopian diversion from mainstream Catholicism. M. D. D. Newitt, Portuguese Settlement on the Zambesi (London: Longman, 1973), 89. J. Vaz de Carvalho, “Mozambique,” in DHCJ, 3:2756–2760, here 2757; José Augusto Alves de Souza, Os Jesuítas em Moçambique, 1541‒1991: No Cinquentenário do Quarto Período da Nossa Missão (Braga: Libraria Apostolado da Imprensa, 1991), 64–65. As Paul Camboué wrote, “Many converts went over to Catholicism as they would have gone over to Protestantism had England conquered the island, or as some went over to Methodism when the prime minister and the queen, by their adherence to it, made that a sort of state religion.”58. Keywords: Jesuits, Society of Jesus, Africa, Mozambique, Angola, Congo, Ethiopia, Madagascar, southern Africa, Egypt. He, however, went out of his way to ensure that Jesuits were available for the missions in the east, especially those in Ethiopia that were clearly instigated by the Portuguese monarch. 2 Michael Onu, SJ, a Nigerian Jesuit, on pilgrimage at a sixteenth-century Portuguese Chapel (visible behind him) in Malindi, coastal Kenya, which is named after St. Francis Xavier, Of greater interest to history are the early missions that were directly meant for Africa, especially those that lasted for an extended period of time. Jesuit Father Ludovic Lado at the beginning of his pilgrimage for peace in Cameroon. A second meeting will take place in the next few days while the circle of young people involved is widening. A number of independent administrative jurisdictions (usually called provinces or regions) were established during the first two decades of African political independence, especially when the order was under the leadership of Fr. Cf. : Something More Publications, 1994.Find this resource: Arrupe, Pedro. (13) Arturo Sosa, S.J., Superior General of the Jesuits, has said that, “You can find Jesuits, true Jesuits, in every region, … Jesuits Worldwide Read More » André Furtado, for example, was sent in person to impress on the government that Portugal must forget about her possessions in eastern Africa unless she was willing to enforce her authority by military force.24 A widely cited 1667 report by Fr. For some time they managed to carry on with their clandestine ministry, changing locations as often as it was necessary to avoid capture. (42) (65) 1928.Find this resource: Creary, Nicholas M. Domesticating a Religious Import: The Jesuits and the Inculturation of the Catholic Church in Zimbabwe, 1879‒1980. The trend was reflected in other parts of Africa especially after World War II. 4 of the Rhodesiana Society. Cf. Most of the works of George McCall Theal can be accessed in digital format at http://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22Theal%2C%20George%20McCall%2C%201837-1919%22. In southern Africa, Bishop James David Richards (1828‒1893) invited the Jesuits to establish a school that was designed to nurture local vocations among sons of European settlers. “Story of Success: The Golden Jubilee of the North-West Province of Africa (ANW).” Year Book of the Society of Jesus 52 (2012): 25–28.Find this resource: Gabriel, Manuel Nunes. A prazo belonging to the Jesuits at Tete is said to have been “one of the largest of the crown lands.”20 With seventeen such prazos across the region, the Jesuits were among the most prominent landholders, who owned an equally large number of slaves that worked the lands.21 In this way, the Jesuit mission heavily depended on the manner in which the Portuguese economy was organized in Mozambique, rendering itself susceptible to whatever would affect that economy in the future. All rights reserved. Festo Mkenda, Director, Jesuit Historical Institute in Africa, Kenya. Vaz de Carvalho, “Angola,” 1:173; Francisco Rodrigues, História da Companhia de Jesus na Assistêcia de Portugal, 7 vols. Undaunted, Páez started planning his next journey almost immediately. B. Histoire politique et religieuse de l’Abyssinie depuis les temps le plus receulés jusqu’à l’avènement de Ménélick II. This made communication with fellow Jesuits difficult and fresh supplies of men and other resources completely impossible to come by. Theal, History of Africa, 1:441–442. A brief word about the Jesuits. Translated by Henry Johnson. Fr. Stephen Kizito Forbi, SJ during the planning meeting that took place from January 29 to 30, 2019 at the Hekima Institute of Peace and International Relations (HIPSIR). Read the statement in full, which follows below. [Pvt.] The Holy Family College in Cairo is probably the symbol of the enduring Jesuit presence in Egypt during this second period. and ed., The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1541‒1543, as Narrated by Castanhoso, with Some Contemporary Letters, the Short Account of Bermudez, and Certain Extracts from Correa (London: Hakluyt Society, 1902), 110–112. Russell Pollitt reports from Nairobi. Mkenda, Mission for Everyone, 107–118. (3) (69) Jesuit Conference on Africa and Madagascar, Jesuit Response to the Challenge of Mission in Africa and Madagascar Today (Washington, DC: Jesuit Missions, 1976), 29–30. R. S. Whiteway, trans. He liberally admired Páez’s personality and talents and openly sought to relate with Rome and Lisbon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.Find this resource: Xavier, Francis. Four Jesuits—Fathers Jorge Vaz, Cristovao Ribeiro, and Jacome Dias, and a scholastic (as Jesuits refer to their members who are training for the priesthood), Diogo do Soveral—reached Mbanza, capital of the then Kongo kingdom, in 1548. (31) (38) London: Lackington, Alen & Co., 1798.Find this resource: Matungulu, Marcel. To show its centrality in the imagination of the Jesuits in Angola, even before its completion the church housed large celebrations on the occasion of the canonizations of Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier in 1622. Washington, DC: Jesuit Missions, 1976.Find this resource: Jones, A. H. M., and Elizabeth Monroe. Zambia is first African country to default on debt during Covid. Their familiarity with the region’s interior made them knowledgeable about local politics and about opportunities for commerce. 1506‒1543), better known as Ahmad Gran (the latter name meaning “the left-handed”). Charles Libois et al., “The Jesuits in Egypt,” Year Book of the Society of Jesus (1990): 130–133, here 31 and passim. (62) Moreover, none of them have a direct link with those early Jesuit efforts to evangelize Africa. 3d ed. (46) John Reader, Africa: A Biography of the Continent (London: Penguin Books, 1998), 341–352. Within the first decade of the twentieth century, they had gone beyond Kisantu, having established a mission at Wombali, Kenge, in 1901.70 In subsequent decades they spread to the dioceses of Kikwit, Kenge, and Popokabaka, with about fifty mission stations in the whole country before its independence in 1961.71 The jurisdiction of the Jesuits in Congo also extended to Rwanda and Burundi, which, like Congo, were under Belgian colonial rule. Sub-Saharan Jesuits are in an extraordinary number of countries. The mission of the Jesuits is a mission of justice and reconciliation, working so that women and men can be reconciled with God, with themselves, with each other and with God’s creation. B. Coulbeaux, Histoire politique et religieuse de l’Abyssinie depuis les temps les plus reculés jusqu’à l’avènement de Ménélick II, 3 vols. This extensive enterprise was known as the Zambezi Mission.61 The mission also covered the region of Mozambique between 1881 and 1910. These constituted a sizable Catholic congregation, which the Jesuits were happy to serve. 2 vols. Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile in the Years 1768 … 1773. Zimbabwe is one example; Zambia is another. William Francis Rea, The Economics of the Zambezi Missions: 1580‒1759 (Rome: Institutum Historicum, S.I., 1976). (39) Finaz became prefect-apostolic of Madagascar from 1851 to 1865.57 Furthermore, when the French won political control over the island, Catholic and Jesuit chances of succeeding in their work also improved. Cf. After he had observed the changes that were happening at that time, Arrupe noted that Jesuits in Africa had to make decisions “with a better knowledge of the local situations” and to organize themselves “in accord with the present trend of the history both of Africa and the Church on that continent, where the Hierarchy has been established a few years ago.”78 This implied ending the practice where major decisions about Jesuit work in Africa depended entirely on superiors who resided in America, Asia, or Europe. To make matters worse, Páez, who had been pivotal in ensuring that there was no constitutional rupture between the virtually Catholic emperors and the Ethiopian state-church because of the new faith, died shortly after Sussenyos’s public confession. It also does publications, resource mobilization, and advocacy and develops program as well. Marc Finaz (1815‒1880) in Tananarivo. On another front, Queen Isabella of Spain invited the Jesuits to move to her newly acquired island of Fernando Po in 1858. (48) Thomas Worcester, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). All of the postwar Jesuit missions in Africa have survived in one form or another and have given rise to a myriad of other activities in several new locations. (25) Tied to these imperial privileges was the responsibility to support ecclesiastics and missionary efforts in the region that included Africa and its adjacent islands. João Nunes Barreto (ca. From the time of their founding in 1540 to the present day, and because of a combination of historical factors, the members of the Society of Jesus (as their order is officially known) have viewed the continent as an appropriate mission territory. He was arrested near the beginning of his journey and accused of carrying out an illegal activity on a … Gujarat: Gujarat Sahitya Prakash, 1998.Find this resource: Boudou, Adrien. (Paris: GEUTCHNER, ca. Two Jesuits—Father Gonçalo Rodriguez and Brother Fulgentius Freire—were sent to Ethiopia to test the waters and prepare the way for the patriarch and his assistants. N’Teba Mbengi, Mission de la Compagnie, 345–363, 446–454. With the passing of time, the Kongo mission prospered more on its southern parts, concentrating on what would roughly fall under Angola in our time. Following instructions from Pope Leo XIII (r. 1878‒1903), the Jesuits opened a minor seminary in Cairo in 1879, aimed at preparing Coptic candidates for seminary training in Beirut.67 Jesuit presence grew fairly steadily both in Cairo and in Alexandria—two cities that hosted two Jesuit colleges in those early years. He insisted on a rigid observance of Roman rituals and demanded public conversion testimonies under pain of death. The Jesuits in Africa mobilize to spread peace and start from the young. And by the time the Jesuits came to Canada, they had already established missions in the far east, Africa and Latin America. Les Missions des Jésuites de France, 1930‒1931, an issue of Relations de Chine 30/1 (1932).Find this resource: Bruce, James. After a 1632 battle during which an estimated 8,000 opponents were killed, the emperor declared complete freedom of worship for both Catholics and Orthodox Ethiopians in the country and then handed over power to his son, Fasilidas (‘Ālam-Sagad, also Selṭān Sagad II, r. 1632‒67). La Mission de la Compagnie de Jésus au Kwilu: Contribution à la transformation d’une région congolaise (1901‒1954). Moreover, just before the Jesuits arrived, a mysterious man by the name João Bermudez had given ample reason to hold in suspicion any missionaries claiming to have been sent from Rome. 15 vols. The Blue Nile. When he finally met Za Dengel (Asnāf Sagad, r. 1604‒5) at the emperor’s own invitation, Páez charmed his host with diplomacy and skill. Along the same line, the Jesuit Historical Institute in Africa (JHIA) was recently established in Nairobi, Kenya. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). The situation quickly changed for the worse, however, when Claudius died in March 1559. From Malindi, Francis proceeded to Goa, his planned missionary destination.7. (72) 2 vols. In Angola, the Jesuits operated from two main centers: Mbanza, later renamed São Salvador after a Jesuit church that was dedicated to the Savior, and Luanda, reported to have had up to 8,000 Christians in 1593. Just as in other aspects of African history, records of Jesuits in Africa are scattered in places like Rome, Lisbon, Paris, Dublin, Quebec, and Goa, with little of value actually available in Jesuit archives on the continent of Africa. NAIROBI , 29 February, 2020 / 2:00 AM ().-Members of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Africa have, in a statement, expressed their concerns about the violence and loss of innocent lives in the Central African nation of Cameroon and proposed “inclusive dialogue involving Anglophone separatists” as the only appropriate solution to the protracted crisis. Although many from Sussenyos’s family and court followed suit, the general reaction throughout the empire was very mixed, ranging from mass conversions to Catholicism to a renewed anti-Catholic spirit and fresh rebellions against his political rule. N.p. Beyrouth: Imprimerie Catholique, 1960.Find this resource: Jesuit Conference on Africa and Madagascar. : Tutis Digital Publishing Pvt. They presented themselves as Christian princes who resisted Islam and who urgently needed help from fellow Christians in Europe. As patriarch, Mendez seems to have had greater authority and hence more success in getting a greater number of Jesuits into Ethiopia. Many JRS Eastern Africa projects from this decade are still in existence today, including those in Kakuma, Adjumani, Nairobi, and Kampala. (61) Here you will find much information about the Society of Jesus in South Africa and, more widely, internationally. (28) In the early days of the mission, Oviedo spent several days debating theology at court, mainly indicating why Catholicism was right and Ethiopian Orthodoxy wrong. AJAN was established in June 2002 by the Jesuit Conference of Africa and Madagascar (JCAM) as a common work of the Conference. Fr. Today there are over 1,600 Jesuits in Africa, a majority of whom are indigenous Africans. The rest lamented the sorry states of archives or reported absolutely nothing.2. Unknown publication details, ca. May he … (29) Of the nine Jesuit jurisdictions that cover Africa and Madagascar today, for instance, only Zimbabwe, Zambia-Malawi, Central Africa (comprising the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola), and Madagascar provinces can boast of catalogued and somewhat maintained archives in Harare, Lusaka, Kinshasa, and Antananarivo, respectively. Cf. Pursuant to this call, Portugal sent military expeditions to Ethiopia from 1487. The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and Their Complementary Norms: A Complete English Translation of the Official Latin Texts. 4). The Zambezi Mission expanded mainly in Zimbabwe and Zambia where it later attracted more Jesuits from France, Germany, Poland, Austria and the Netherlands. Submit a prayer request Thanks to our donors, the Jesuits and lay partners of Jesuits West are making a positive difference in people’s lives. Francis Xavier, His Life, His Times. W. F. Rea, “Agony on the Zambezi: The First Christian Mission to Southern Africa and Its Failure, 1580–1759,” Zambezia 1/2 (1970): 46–53, here 50. “The Suppression and Restoration.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits, edited by Thomas Worcester, 263–277. 200 Years of Christianity in Africa: An African Church History. Pedro Arrupe, “Decretum: Nova Regio independens Africae Orientalis Constituitur,” Acta Romana Societatis Iesu 16/4 (1976/1977): 903–906, here 903 (English version). Diaries of the Jesuit Missionaries at Bulawayo 1879-1881: Publication No. Opened in 1611, the college at this location served a vast area that included the Makaranga community and other peoples who were under the imperial control of the Monomotapa. The African Jesuit AIDS Network-AJAN secretariat (AJAN) coordinates the efforts of Jesuit centers in Africa which are involved in the continual fight against HIV and AIDS. The medieval European legend of Prester John30—a freelancing, well-meaning but schismatic Christian prince and priestly descendant of one of the biblical magi (see Matthew 2:1‒12), who reigned somewhere in the broadly perceived near-eastern region of the then imagined world—had just been linked to one Negus, as Ethiopian emperors were called. Les Jésuites à Madagascar au xixe siècle. They helped to rebuild the church in South Sudan as they concentrated on the formation of a local clergy in minor and senior seminaries.76 In 1962, one Jesuit from New York joined the faculty at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, and in the following year he was joined by two others from the same place, who taught at the university and provided chaplaincy services in various institutions around the city. In Madagascar, Catholic establishments gained ground only after the death of Queen Ranavalona (r. 1828‒61), who had been particularly hostile to Christian missions.56 Following her death, the Jesuits played a significant role in the primary evangelization of the islanders. Although the mission had also been initially viewed as an effort to counter the advances of Protestantism, the local context and the realities at this college made interfaith and ecumenical encounters the hallmark of Jesuit work in Egypt. 8, South Africa, Rhodesia and the Protectorates, edited by A. P. Newton, E. A. Benians, and Eric A. Walker, 79–111. (66) You could not be signed in, please check and try again. One such mission went to the Congo-Angola region. “Formula of the Institute,” no. Members of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in Africa have termed the shooting of children at a school in Cameroon, which left scores dead and many others injured as “a heinous and despicable act” and called on authorities in the Central African country to act fast … The political administration came to rely on their advice and even entrusted important business to them. Fifteen years later, the missionaries of the Society of Jesus arrived, also known as the Jesuits and the "soldiers of Christ". (75) A Voyage to Abyssinia. (11) For a brief moment, a Polish Jesuit, Fr. Pedro Tavares (1591‒1676) is said to have been continually traveling to these villages. In a statement sent to ACI Africa, the leadership of the Jesuit Conference of Africa and Madagascar (JCAM) says that the Saturday, October 24 attack on innocent children at Mother Francisca Nursery and Primary School of Cameroon’s Diocese of Kumba in the Southwest Region of the country was shocking. He is deeply mourned by the Jesuits of Japan and Asia Pacific, his family and compatriots in Spain, and his many friends around the world. London: William Clowes and Sons, 1898–1903.Find this resource: Theal, George McCall. Jesuit history in Africa can be easily divided into three main periods. The Portuguese Expedition to Abyssinia in 1541‒1543, as Narrated by Castanhoso, with Some Contemporary Letters, the Short Account of Bermudez, and Certain Extracts from Correa. Maria Amélia, “Angola Field Trip: Seven Historic Churches Tour,” February 2009, on http://angolafieldgroup.com/historic-tours/. Rerum Aethiopicarum Scriptores Occidentales. (17) The Quest of the Union of the Churches in Luso-Ethiopian Relations (1500‒1632). Only a fraction of the envisioned team actually worked in Prester John’s country. M. Joseph Castelloe (Gujarat: Gujarat Sahitya Prakash, 1993), 39–41, 46–48; Georg Schurhammer, Francis Xavier, His Life, His Times, 4 vols., trans. (35) In most cases, these missions were sparked by and depended on Portugal’s imperial adventures in Africa just as to some extent their missionary success depended on the Portuguese economic and political success. The region was already under heavy Portuguese influence, and there existed a church with a local bishop. 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